In textile design, when you make a print and jacquard you begin with two dimensional artwork. With a print, it doesn’t change much from the artwork. You have to decide which base cloth to print on. We produce digital prints. Digital printing has a lot advantages: no limitation on the number of colors in image, no large minimums of yardage to print and the cost to print has become more comparable to screen printing.
With jacquard weaving, you assign different weaves to each color. There are a lot more variables/choices when making jacquards. You can take a two dimensional design in many different directions. The yarns you choose, the pick level and other factors effect the final fabric results.
So, the answer to the question of, “what is the difference?” is more about the only two things that are the same in prints in jacquards - they both are fabric, they both begin with artwork!